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22/06/2020

Altruizam – odlika velikih ljudi

Author:Anica Petkovic

Vrednosti koje su duboko usađene u većinu modernih društava su takve da na određen način počivaju na uverenju da je u ljudskoj prirodi da pomažu jedni drugima. Ako se poštenje, nesebičnost, iskrenost i dobronamernost smatraju najboljim vrednostima pojedinca, onda nije teško doći do zaključka da bi altruizam trebalo da bude nešto što se podrazumeva.

Šta je altruizam?

Altruizam je nesebična briga prema drugim ljudima i delovanje iz želje da se nekome pomogne, ne zato što se se mora ili iz osećaja družnosti, lojalnosti ili religijskih razloga. 

Ako obratite pažnju primetićete da je svaki dan je ispunjen malim delima altruizma, od držanja vrata komšiji da uđe u zgradu, do davanja novca prosjacima. 

Cilj altruizma je da se pomogne drugima, pri čemu se ne očekuje ništa za uzvrat. Ponekad altruizam bude toliko nesebično delo, da može naneti štetu onome ko delo čini. Želje i interes drugog su u prvom planu, iznad sopstvenih interesa. 

Altruistički postupci se čine poptuno svesno i iziskuju određeno žrtvovanje ili odricanje. 

Odlike altruista po kojima su prepoznatljivi

Odlike altruista su veoma prepoznatljive i odmah ćete moći da ih uočite. Ukoliko vam sledeće odlike zvuče veoma poznato, postoji šansa da ste i vi altruista: 

#1 Stavljaju druge na prvo mesto

Altruisti imaju jak osećaj empatije. Prvi će vam ponuditi užinu, ioako su i sami gladni. Prepustiće vam mesto u gradskom prevozu, da možete da sedite pored svog prijatelja. Iskoristiće svoju pauzu na poslu da pomognu kolegi. Koji god da je slučaj – oni to čine ne jer misle da su manje vredni od ostalih, već zato što su veoma pažljivi i vole da stavljaju dobrobit drugih na prvo mesto.

Devojka dobija buket cveća

#2 Razmišljaju o tome kako njihovi postupci utiču na duge

Altruisti veliki deo svojih odluka donose brinući o tome kako će one uticati na druge ljude. 

Na primer, altruista ste i saznali ste da vaš omiljeni restoran uvodi aplikaciju pomoću koje možete unapred da naručite i da ne čekate u redu. Ali onda shvatite da je to neugodno za sve ljude koji su došli i čekaju u redu – njihove porudžbine će zakasniti, jer će zaposleni vašu porudžbinu prioritizovati. Onda se odlučite da umesto da koristite aplikaciju, čekate u redu kao i ostali, jer ne želite da stvarate nelagodnost nikome. 

#3 Osećaju se dobro nakon što su nekome pomogli

Altruisti ne preziru to koliko su velikodušni i ne žele da se više brinu o sebi – umesto toga, oni prihvataju svoju nesebičnost i vole kako se osećaju. Jednostavno vole da čine dobro za druge.

#4 Poseduju i prikazuju zdrav nivo samopouzdanja

Altruisti su sigurni u svoje morale i stavove, i retko kad sumnjaju u sebe. Znaju da žive prema svojim verovanjima i da poboljšavaju okruženje, kao i da to poboljšava njihov život, što se direktno može primetiti na njima i samopouzdanju kojim odišu. 

Objašnjenja altruističkog ponašanja

Psiholozi tvrde da postoji nekoliko različitih objašnjenja zašto altruizam postoji. 

Biološki razlozi

Odabir rodbine je evoluciona teorija koja predlaže da će ljudi pre pomoći svojim krvnim srodnicima, jer će povećati šanse da se prenesu geni na buduće generacije. Teorija tvrdi da se altruizam prema rođacima ispoljava da bi se osigurao nastavak deljenih gena. Što je bliži rod, veće su šanse da će im se pomoći. 

Neurološki razlozi 

Altruziam aktivira nagradni centar u mozgu. Neurobiolozi su otkrili da kada se čini dobro delo, centri za zadovoljstvo u mozgu se aktiviraju. 

Jedna studija, objavljena 2014. godine u časopisu Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, otkrila je da izvršenje saosećajnih dela aktivira delove mozga koji su povezani sa sistemom nagrađivanja. 

Pozitivna osećanja koja su nastala usled empatijskih postupaka dodatno podstiču altruističko ponašanje. 

Društvene norme

Društvene norme, pravila i očekivanja mogu u nekoj meri uticati na altruističko ponašanje. Norma reciprociteta je socijalno očekivanje u kome se osećamo da moramo da pomognemo nekome ko je nama (u prošlosti) pomogao. 

Na primer, ako vam je prijatelj pomogao da okrečite stan, vi ćete osećati da morate istom prijatelju pomoći kada vas pita da li možete da mu pomognete da pokosi dvorište. Prijatelj je uradio nešto za vas i vi nakon toga osećate obavezu da uzvratite.

Naučnici tvrde da altruistička dela imaju uticaj na zdravlje kao i na dužinu života, a evo i zašto: kada činimo dobra dela osećamo se ispunjeno i život dobija veći smisao. Pomaganje drugima smanjuje nivo stresa koji osećamo, usled čega smo srećniji. Altruizam se zbog toga može posmatrati kao vrlina, jer dobra dela, sem što pomažu pojedincima, smanjuju mržnju i zlobu, i vode ka mirnijem okruženju i uravnoteženom životu.

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